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文章标题:科学与信仰——人类的眼睛  文章来源:活水网  发布时间:2014/3/26  访问次数:2608  文章简介:科学与信仰——从眼睛的角度反驳进化论
 

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科学与信仰——人类的眼睛

文章来源:活水网   发布时间:2014/3/26     访问次数:2608   
  


简介:科学与信仰——从眼睛的角度反驳进化论


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( 英汉对照,从眼睛的角度反驳进化论 译者)
The human eye is enormously complicated - a perfect and interrelated system of about 40 individual subsystems, including the retina, pupil, iris, cornea, lens and optic nerve. For instance, the retina has approximately 137 million special cells that respond to light and send messages to the brain. About 130 million of these cells look like rods and handle the black and white vision. The other seven million are cone shaped and allow us to see in color. The retina cells receive light impressions, which are translated to electric pulses and sent to the brain via the optic nerve. A special section of the brain called the visual cortex interprets the pulses to color, contrast, depth, etc., which allows us to see "pictures" of our world. Incredibly, the eye, optic nerve and visual cortex are totally separate and distinct subsystems. Yet, together, they capture, deliver and interpret up to 1.5 million pulse messages a milli-second! It would take dozens of Cray supercomputers programmed perfectly and operating together flawlessly to even get close to performing this task.1

人类的双眼是极其复杂的 - 一个完美的和相互关联的系统,大约有40个不同的子系统,包括视网膜,瞳孔,虹膜,角膜,晶状体和视神经。例如,视网膜有大约一亿三千七百万个特殊的细胞来响应光线和发送信息到大脑。其中约有一亿三千万个棒状细胞来处理黑白视觉,另外七百万个锥状细胞使我们能够看到颜色。视网膜细胞接收外来的光线,将其译成电脉冲,并通过视神经传送至大脑。大脑中称为视觉皮层的部分将脉冲解释为色彩,对比度,深度等,从而使我们能够看到我们世界的“图画”。令人难以置信的是,眼睛,视神经和视觉皮层是完全分离和独立的子系统。然而,它们在一毫秒之内能协同地拍摄,传递和解释多达150万个脉冲信息!这种任务要用数十台Cray超级计算机完美无瑕地编程和共同运作才能接近完成。

That's so powerful to me! Obviously, if all the separate subsystems aren't present and performing perfectly at the same instant, the eye won't work and has no purpose. Logically, it would be impossible for random processes, operating through gradual mechanisms of natural selection and genetic mutation, to create 40 separate subsystems when they provide no advantage to the whole until the very last state of development and interrelation.

这是如此强大的功能!显然,如果所有独立的子系统中某个子系统不存在,或在同一瞬间不能协调地执行其功能,眼睛就不会工作,也就没有什么意义。从逻辑上讲,通过自然选择和基因突变的循序渐进的运行机制,来建立40个独立的子系统,是不可能的随机过程。须知:直到它们发展和相互关联到最后状态,对整个眼睛没有任何好处。

How did the lens, retina, optic nerve, and all the other parts in vertebrates that play a role in seeing suddenly come about? Because natural selection cannot choose separately between the visual nerve and the retina. The emergence of the lens has no meaning in the absence of a retina. The simultaneous development of all the structures for sight is unavoidable. Since parts that develop separately cannot be used, they will both be meaningless, and also perhaps disappear with time. At the same time, their development all together requires the coming together of unimaginably small probabilities. 2

当突然看到物体时,脊椎动物的晶状体,视网膜,视神经,和所有其他部件是如何发挥作用的?由于自然选择无法在视神经和视网膜之间单独地选择,如果缺乏视网膜,出现晶状体没有任何意义,视觉的所有结构同时发展是不可避免的。由于单独开发的部件不能使用,它们都将是毫无意义的,也可能随着时间的推移而消失。与此同时,它们共同合作的发展需要难以想象的小概率。2

The foregoing represents the core of "irreducible complexity." Complex organs made up of separate but necessary subsystems cannot be the result of random chance. Or, using the above language, such development could only result from "unimaginably small probabilities." For me, this means "statistical impossibility."

上述提出了“不可简化的复杂性”的核心。复杂的器官是由独立的,必要的子系统组成,而且不能随机地形成。或者,使用上述语言,这种发展只能由“难以想象的小概率”获得。对于我来说,这意味着“统计上不可能。”

Come to think of it, I remember Darwin specifically discussing the incredible complexity of the eye in Origin of Species:

达尔文在“物种起源”中专门讨论了眼睛的难以置信的复杂性:

To suppose that the eye, with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus to different distances, for admitting different amounts of light, and for the correction of spherical and chromatic aberration, could have formed by natural selection, seems, I freely confess, absurd in the highest degree possible. 3

眼睛具有各种独特的才能:按不同的距离调整焦距,接纳不同数量的光线,校正球面和色差。如果假定眼睛可能由自然选择形成,看来,我坦率地承认,可能是最荒唐的。

So, how did Darwin deal with the staggering realities of the eye in the 1850's? As "absurdly" improbable as it was, he followed through with his theory and pointed to the simpler eye structures found in simpler creatures. He reasoned that more complex eyes gradually evolved from the simpler ones.

因此,请看达尔文在1850年是如何处理眼睛的惊人现实?尽管“荒谬”,不可能,他却跟着他的理论,指出在更简单的生物中找到更简单眼睛结构。他论证:更复杂的眼睛是由更简单的眼睛逐渐进化的。

However, this hypothesis no longer passes muster. Short of the micro-biological and genetic information issues, paleontology now shows that "simple creatures" emerged in the world with complex structures already intact. Even the simple trilobite has an eye (complete with its double lens system) that's considered an optical miracle by today's standards.

然而,这一假设不再令人满意,当时缺少对微生物和遗传信息问题的认识。现代古生物学表明:出现在世界上的 “简单的生物”的复杂结构已经完整无缺。按照今天的标准,即使是简单的三叶虫,它的眼睛(完美的双镜头系统)也是一个光学奇迹。

Wait. The trilobite reminds me of something… Before I continue with the marvel of irreducible complexity and design, I have one more thought about Darwin and his original claims…

三叶虫使我想起了的一些事情……在我继续讨论不可简化的复杂性和设计时,我还有一个想法,是关于达尔文和他原来的主张……

参考文献
1 Lawrence O. Richards, It Couldn't Just Happen, Thomas Nelson, Inc., 1989, 139-140.
2 Dr. Ali Demirsoy, Inheritance and Evolution, Meteksan Publications, Ankara, 475.
3 Darwin, Origin of Species, 155.

 

本文转自:活水网

 

 

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